1 John Long attributes this phrase to Rich Clarkson (John Long, “Knowledge: Key to Power in the Newsroom,” News Photographer (May, 1990)).

2 Everett C. Hughes, “Studying the Nurse’s Work” and “Psychology: Science and/or Profession” in The Sociological Eye, (Transaction 1984).

3 Gerald D. Hurley and Angus McDougall, Visual Impact in Print (Chicago: Visual Impact, Inc., 1976).

4 John Long, ibid..

5 Karin E. Becker, “Forming a Profession: Ethical Implications of Photojournalistic Practice on German Picture Magazines, 1926–1933,” Studies in Visual Communication 11 (Spring, 1985), pp. 45–60.

6 See The Concerned Photographer, Grossman Publishers, New York, 1968. Edited by Cornell Capa.

7 The conventionalization of visual imagery I learned as a journalist is described in Gaye Tuchman, Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality (New York: The Free Press, 1978); Herbert J. Gans, Deciding What’s News (New York: Vintage, 1980); and Harvey Molotch and Marilyn Lester, “News as Purposive Behavior: On the Strategic Use of Routine Events, Accidents, and Scandals.” American Sociological Review 39 (1974): 101–112. I have discussed the conventions specific to one genre of news photograph in “The Joy of Victory, The Agony of Defeat: Stereotypes in Newspaper Sports Feature Photographs,” in Visual Sociology: 8 (Fall, 1993), pp. 48–66. The arguments made there apply to photojournalistic practice generally.