experimenting with different ways to organize space within the frame, ways to divide and decentralize it (figs. 13–16). Putting people and objects along the edges of the frame rather than in the center when I photographed the services, for instance, let me include the crowd, as well as the ceiling and the fluorescent lights. The harshness and ordinariness of the lights became a motif with which I could link one photograph to another. I let the frame cut off parts of figures as a way to exaggerate a sense of the world extending beyond the frame and to speak of the connections this situation had with others, rather than its isolation.

I began to include doorways or windows that opened up to another, deeper space. This device allowed one scene to be organized within a larger scene and helped set up comparisons and analogies in the photograph. I saw how this worked in previous photographs (e.g., how the doorway emphasized, or framed, the tabernacle in figure 11 and how the door window framed the man peering into the chief Seattle Club in figure 6) and began using it deliberately.

Figure 14 is a photograph made during a morning prayer service at the Bread of Life Mission. I could see both the mission chapel and the mission office from where I stood in the hallway. The people I could see through one doorway could not see those visible through the other. The street people are watching the front of the chapel, a homeless man in the doorway is watching them, and the photographer/viewer sees them all, as well as the man laughing in the office. The simultaneous scenes in different spaces are put forward for comparison and connection in the overall frame of the image, each like a separate photograph in its own frame.

To get the deep focus, to have all the elements from foreground to background clearly visible, I had to use a small aperture, which required exposure times too long for me to hold the camera steady.(12) So I began to use a tripod routinely when I photographed the mission services. The photographs I made with the tripod appeared less